Advertising consists of all the activities involved in presenting to a group an oral or visual message regarding a product, service or idea. This message is disseminated through one or more media and is paid for by the advertiser.


    • To inform the public of newly launched products
    • To persuade people to buy a specific product


    • Source of information for customer
    • Helps producer in gaining more market share

    Social Aspects:

    • Sometimes, wring messages can be conveyed, especially to children
    • Competitive advertisement is exploitation of other businesses.


    • Customers may be misled by false claims
    • They will have difficulty in choosing from a large range
    • Irrational spending on things


    1. Informative: provide info about product e.g. prices, modes, color etc to promote a specific product, not entire brand
    2. Persuasive: persuade customer that their brand is superior than others
    3. Collective: an entire industry unites to promote their product for example, all television manufacturers advertise of the advantages of TV without promoting a specific brand
    4. Competitive: when 2 or more firms involve themselves in exploiting each other while promoting their own brands


    Factors affecting the choice of a suitable medium to place an ad:

    • Nature of product
    • Viewership
    • Cost
    • Target audience
    • Time span
    • Wastage (how many of those viewing the ad are actually the target audience)
    • Image

    Several media:

    1. Newspaper


    Advantages Disadvantages
    High viewership Low time span
    Flexible and timely High wastage
    Circulation cost per exposure is low Low image
    National and regional coverage Only for literate
    Ad can be inserted or cancelled at short notice Very costly



    1. Magazines
    Advantages Disadvantages
    High quality production Inflexible
    High time span infrequent
    Low wastage Ads must be placed weeks before the date of publishing
    Suitable for messages which are to be read in a leisurely fashion Moderate viewership
    Moderate cost Low image


    1. Radio
    Advantages Disadvantages
    Low cost Low image
    Moderate viewership Very low time span
      High wastage
      Low audience attention


    1. Television
    Advantages Disadvantages
    High viewership Very low time span
    Hig image  – appealing High wastage
      Low audience attention


    1. Films
    Advantages Disadvantages
    High image High cost
    Widescreen gives better impact Low time span
    Appropriate for local products High, but controllable wastage
    Appropriate for local products  


    1. Direct Mail
    Advantages Disadvantages
    Low wastage Low viewership
    Flexibility Low image
    No competition with same medium Low cost
      Suffers from being called junk mail


    1. Bill Boards
    Advantages Disadvantages
    High time span High wastage
    Huge size – attractive Less image
    Low cost Open to vandalism
    Suitable for local products Creative limitations


    1. Pamphlets
    Advantages Disadvantages
    Low wastage Low viewership
    Low cost Low image
    High time span Limited circulation
    Personal impact  
    Advice and explanation where necessary  


    1. Travelling Salesmen
    Advantages Disadvantages
    Low cost Low viewership
    Low wastage Short time span
    Effective – brings products to home Low image
    Can demonstrate the uses to customers Salesman might be unwelcome at places
      Salary of sales man is added expenditure


    1. Points of Display
    Advantages Disadvantages
    Low cost Low viewership
    High time span Low image
    attractive High wastage


    1. Internet
    Advantages Disadvantages
    High time span Costly
    Good image Wastage depends on sight
    High viewership  


    Methods of Appeal:

    These are tools used by the advertisers in the promotion campaign to appeal the type of consumers it is intended for. Examples:

    1. Romance appeal
    2. Economy Appeal
    3. Appeal for Manliness
    4. Appeal for Family Love
    5. Appeal for cleanliness
    6. Appeal to safety

    Sales Promotion:

    All those activities which help the producer or seller to increase his sales overtime. Examples:

    1. Sponsoring events
    2. T-shirts for players
    3. Hands on experience
    4. Free samples
    5. Using a product in movies