3.6.3 Making human resource decisions: improving organisational design and managing the human resource flow
Influences on job design
Job Design = the process of deciding on the content of the job in terms of its duties and responsibilities, on the methods to be used in carrying out the job, in terms of techniques, systems, and procedures, and in the relationships that should exist between the job holder and his superiors, subordinates and colleagues
Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristic Model = a model based in the belief that the task itself is the key to employee motivation
- How many different skills and talents does the job require of a person?
- Are they asked to do a lot of different things, or is it a monotonous, repetitive job?
- It seems reasonable to conclude that a job that involves a variety of activists and perhaps stretches an employees to develop their skills, is more likely to be motivating than menial and monotonous work each day
- Is there a clearly defined beginning, middle, and end to a given task?
- Dow a worker know what they are supposed to be doing, and when they have successfully completed the task?
- There is no better felling at work than having completed a task successfully – a clearly-defined task is merely likely to create opportunities for employees to enjoy the positive feelings of achievement
- Does the job have a substantial impact?
- Will it matter to people, either within the organisation or to the society?
- Is the job/given task meaningful?
- It can be very demotivating at work if you feel your work has little or no meaning/ significance
- How much freedom does an individual have to accomplish their tasks?
- Does this freedom include the ability to schedule work as well as figuring out how to get the tasks done?
- Is an employee kept in the loop about their performance?
- Are they being told when they are going well and when they’re not?
Influences on organisational design
- Existing skills
- Nature, range, and volume of tasks for employees required to complete
- Physical capabilities
- The way work is organised/carried out
- Quality standards
- Time frame required for products to be completed
External environment influences:
- Technological developments
- Levels of education
- Social changes
Employee related influences:
- Range of skills
- Variety of jobs
Authority = the rights of permission assigned to a particular role in an organisation in order to achieve organisational objectives
Chain of Command = the order of authority and delegation within a business
Delegation = the process of passing authority down the hierarchy from a manager to a subordinate
Centralisation / Decentralisation = the degree to which authority is delegated within the organisation. A centralised structure has a greater degree of central control, while and decentralised structure involves a greater degree of delegated authority to the subordinates
Span of Control = the number of subordinates for whom a manager is directly responsible
External influences on organisational design:
- Objectives – expansion/growth
- Sources of finance
- Leadership type
Internal influences on organisational design:
- Levels of education in society
- State of economy
- Technological developments
Influences on delegation, centralisation, and decentralisation
Influences on delegation, centralisation, and decentralisation:
- History and nature of the organisation – centralisation or decentralisation of authority depends on the manner, in which the organisation has built up over time i.e. history of the organisation
- Size of the organisation – in a large organisation, numerous decisions have to be taken at different places – therefore it becomes difficult to coordinate the functions of different departments. To avoid slow decision-making and to bring down the costs associated with managing a large organisation, authority should be decentralised. Decentralisation means the firms can operate as a group of small independent units
- Availability of competent managers – decentralisation of authority may not be possible if the managers of the organisation are not talented enough, and if they can’t handle the problems of decentralised units
- Time frame of decisions – in order to survive in a highly competitive environment, every organisation has to capitalise on the available opportunities. In a decentralised organisation, the authority to make decisions lies with the head of that particular unit – therefore, decisions can be made faster. The decisions are made closer to the scene of action, and are therefore, timely and accurate.
- The importance of a decision – generally, decisions, which involve high risks and costs, are made by the top management, while the decisions involving routine and low-risk activities are delegated to the subordinates
- Environmental influence – government regulation of private business is the most important factor, which affects the extent of decentralisation
The value of changing job and organisational design
Organisational structure types:
- Functional – the traditional organisational structure where firms are divided into departments such as HR, marketing etc
- Geographical – organised based on location
- Product line based – organised according to the different products made by the firm
- Customer/market based – the organisation is split by who it sells its products to
- Matrix: hierarchical and functional approaches are combined and it usually used for specific projects within a firm
How managing the human resource flow helps meet human resource objectives
Human Resource Flow = the flow of people in and out of the business
What is included in the human resource flow:
- Recruitment and selection
- Internal flow
- Evaluation of performance/appraisal
- Career development
- Promotion and demotion, transfers, and redeployment
- Training and development
- Employees leaving voluntarily, dismissal, redundancy, retirement